1.21 Out of Africa II-B

About 60,000 years ago, the African coastal mussel bank people crossed the red Sea at the Strait of Bab el Mandab. 50,000 ya they left the Arabian peninsula and entered Europe ans Asia. Presumably in several waves.

The OoA II-B dispersal of the AMHs
(the big red spot in Africa may not have been more than a series red dots on the coasts …)

The mussel bank people had a slightly lighter skin color and were not frizzy, like the negritos of OoA II-A, but had straight hair.

With their ‘modern’ mentality, their better armaments and their larger groups, they pushed aside the negritos to jungles and other less attractive regions.
They would later be replaced by the even more ‘modern’ Aryans, a savage horse folk from around the Black Sea.
The mussel bank AMHs of OoA II-B would become dalits, at least in India, with its hopeless caste system.
May the free market economy finally bring salvation there.

The musselbank people also entered Europe, inhabited until then by Neanderthals only, around 45,000 years ago. Europe seemed largely empty: Neanderthals lived in very isolated little groups.
As Early Humans, the Neanderthals  now got being confronted with a totally different kind of humans: black, numerous, noisy, sort of aliens, with their high foreheads, their protruding chin and their flattened backskull.  In addition, they were armed with farther reaching spears (and maybe wolves!).  And they didn’t react on your gestured communication.
So you could better avoid confrontations and move into an area where they not appeared.
The musselbank AMHs seldom encountered a Neanderthal, they mostly stumbled on an abandoned camp or cave of them.

By 35,000 years ago, the AMHs had populated most of the Old World and the Neanderthals were retreated into mountain strongholds in Croatia, the Iberian Peninsula, the Crimea and elsewhere. Their groups became isolated from each other, suffered ever more from inbreeding and would extinct some 30,000 years ago.

Finally, around 15,000 years ago, AMH humans crossed from Asia to North America and from there to South America. The white regions on the map above  is territory that was never been tread by humans before.

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Used abbreviations

GHs: gatherers/hunters (the phase from 2 million years ago to 10.000 years ago)

AGRs: agriculturers (the phase from 10.000 years ago till now)

NT(s)Neanderthal people

MSA(s): Middle Stone Age people (African NTs)

AMH(s): Anatomical Modern Humans (H sapiens people), like we are

(m)ya: (million) years ago

ANBOs: Ancestor Bonobos (ape-men), our earliest human ancestors

Paleos: all scientists that are important for our story.

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